Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings. Civil engineering is the oldest engineering discipline after military engineering, and it was defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering. It is traditionally broken into several sub-disciplines including environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, geophysics, geodesy, control engineering, structural engineering, transportation engineering, earth science, atmospheric sciences, forensic engineering, municipal or urban engineering, water resources engineering, materials engineering, offshore engineering, quantity surveying, coastal engineering, surveying, and construction engineering. Civil engineering takes place on all levels: in the public sector from municipal through to national governments, and in the private sector from individual homeowners through to international companies.
Below is a list of disciplines within or related to the civil engineering field.
- Geotechnical Engineering - The branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials, it is important in civil engineering, but is also used by military, mining, petroleum, or any other engineering concerned with construction on or in the ground.
- Hydraulic Engineering - A sub-discipline of civil engineering concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water and sewage, one feature of these systems is the extensive use of gravity as the motive force to cause the movement of the fluids. This area of civil engineering is intimately related to the design of bridges, dams, channels, canals, and levees, and to both sanitary and environmental engineering.
- Surveying - Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them, commonly practiced by licensed surveyors, and members of various building professions.
- Structural Engineering - A field of engineering dealing with the analysis and design of structures that support or resist loads, structural engineering usually considered a specialty within civil engineering, but it can also be studied in its own right.
- Environmental Engineering - The study of the integration of science and engineering principles to improve the natural environment, to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate pollution sites.
- Architectural Engineering - Also known as building engineering, is the application of engineering principles and technology to building design and construction.
- Construction Engineering - A professional discipline that deals with the designing, planning, construction, and management of infrastructures such as highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and utilities.
Aquatic and environmental engineering | Climate engineering | Civionic engineering (civionics) | Earthquake engineering | Earth systems engineering and management | Ecological engineering | Facilities engineering | Geomatics engineering | Highway engineering | Landscape engineering (landscape architecture) | Land development engineering | Pavement engineering | Railway systems engineering | River engineering | Sanitary engineering | Sewage engineering | Traffic engineering | Transportation engineering (transport engineering) | Urban engineering (Municipal engineering)