Biological engineering or biotechnology (including biological systems engineering) is the application of concepts and methods of biology (and secondarily of physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science) to solve real-world problems related to the life sciences and/or the application thereof, using engineering's own analytical and synthetic methodologies and also its traditional sensitivity to the cost and practicality of the solutions arrived at. In this context, while traditional engineering applies physical and mathematical sciences to analyze, design and manufacture inanimate tools, structures and processes, biological engineering uses primarily the rapidly developing body of knowledge known as molecular biology to study and advance applications of living organisms.
- Agricultural Engineering - Engineering discipline that applies engineering science and technology to agricultural production and processing. Agricultural engineering combines the disciplines of animal biology, plant biology, and mechanical, civil, electrical and chemical engineering principles with a knowledge of agricultural principles.
- Biochemical - Branch of chemical engineering or biological engineering that mainly deals with the design and construction of unit processes that involve biological organisms or molecules.
- Bioprocess Engineering - Specialization of biotechnology, biological engineering, chemical engineering and of agricultural engineering. It deals with the design and development of equipment and processes for the manufacturing of products such as food, feed, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, chemicals, and polymers and paper from biological materials.
- Biomechanical - Bioengineering subdiscipline which applies principles of mechanical engineering to biological systems and stems from the scientific discipline of biomechanics. Many cases are related to Biomedical engineering and Agricultural engineering.
- Biomedical - Application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes (e.g. diagnostic or therapeutic). This field seeks to close the gap between engineering and medicine: It combines the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical and biological sciences to advance healthcare treatment, including diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy.
- Biophysics - An interdisciplinary science using methods of, and theories from, physics to study biological systems. Biophysics spans all levels of biological organization, from the molecular scale to whole organisms and ecosystems. Biophysical research shares significant overlap with biochemistry, nanotechnology, bioengineering, agrophysics, and systems biology. It has been suggested as a bridge between biology and physics.
- Biotechnology - The use of living systems and organisms to develop or make useful products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the (related) fields of bioengineering and biomedical engineering.
- Genetic Engineering